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terça-feira, 27 de dezembro de 2016

10 different types of extraction of coffee

Coffee appeared around the year 1,000 wrapped in the legend of a goat herder in Ethiopia who took to a known monk the fruits of a plant that left his flock more willing when ingested. The monk made an infusion of grains and realized that the drink helped him to get more time awake during his meditations.

Few people know, but coffee is the second most consumed drink in the world only after water. One of its differentials are the numerous forms of extraction that may result in completely different tastes, even when we use the same variety and brand of coffee.


Currently there are several ways to prepare a good coffee. To understand these subtleties, we presented 10 different ways to prepare this well-known drink. To do this comparative, the coffee chosen for is from a gourmet category, which is prepared only with 100% Arabica coffee beans and goes through various tests on the PQC (Cofee Quality Program) by ABIC (Brazilian Coffee Industry Association) to only receive the seal if it have notes of 7.3 to 10. The program has the objective of adding value and increase the consumption from the continuous improvement of the coffee. This kind of coffee can be found in different brands in Brazil.


Sieve of Cloth

Resultado de imagem para sieve of cloth to coffee
When and who was the first to use this form of extraction of coffee is not known, but until today it is the most traditional in houses, bars and bakeries. The method is very simple: place the coffee in the sieve and then pour out hot water normally filtering into a pot. This way of doing has as positive points related to ease and speed, but it is important to be careful with the type of cloth and by how many times it will be used.

The grinding is fine, kind refined sugar. The result is a drink with little body and taste with notes of chocolate, vanilla, caramel and hazelnut, and mild acidity. The tip of preparation is using 50 grams of coffee to 500 ml of water. The amount of coffee in the strainer of cloth should be greater than that of the paper filter on account of the weft of the fabric that makes an extract of coffee more quickly.


Paper Filter 

Resultado de imagem para paper filter
This type of extraction was created on July 8, 1908 in Germany by a housewife named Melitta Bentz. After several complaints from her husband due of the quality of coffee, she noted that the problem was the coffee residues accumulated in previous preparations in sieve cloth. To solve the problem, she clipped a piece round of blotting paper and covered the bottom of a mug of brass, in which she made several holes. The result was the first extraction with paper filter in the world.

The grinding is fine, kind refined sugar. The result is a drink with little body and taste with notes of chocolate, vanilla, caramel and hazelnut, and citrus acidity. The tip of preparation is using 40 grams of coffee to 500 ml of water. 




Coffee at Clever
Resultado de imagem para coffee at clever

It looks like a classic filter holder, but with the advantage of being "smart". Its name is Clever Coffee System and its differential is a buffer in its bottom that allows the control of the water and the time of contact between it and its coffee.

The flow control system was a great insight from a Taiwanese company when it launched the product about a decade ago. It is made of silicone and completely seals the liquid outlet when it is closed. The advantage is to be able to put the amount of water you want and leave it in the powder for as long as you want or according to the need of the grinding.

This method provides a coffee which vary according to the grind. A tip of preparation is a grinding fine and leave on the infusion for 1 minute and 40 seconds, resulting in a full-bodied drink.

Italian Coffee Pot or Moka 
Resultado de imagem para Italian Coffee Pot or Moka


It was the precursor of espresso machines, arose in Italy of an adaptation of a teapot. It is still one of the ways to make coffee at home in Europe. The preparation process is quite simple. At the bottom of coffee pot, there is water and, at the top, in a container with holes, the coffee powder. Then, the top is threaded and the coffee pot is placed in the fire.

When the water enters at boiling point, passes through the coffee and the liquid that rises is ready and is stored at the top. The grinding is very fine, kind refined sugar. The result is drink full-bodied and taste with slight bitterness and notes of chocolate, vanilla and caramel, and little acidity. The tip of preparation is 30 grams of coffee for six coffee cups. 



Neapolitan coffee
Resultado de imagem para Neapolitan coffee
The moka coffee is very young compared to the Neapolitan coffee maker, while the famous moka has 50 years of life, the Neapolitan method is 200 years old.   The method of preparation is:  fill water to the level of the nozzle hole without a spout; fill the filter to the level and, without pressing on the coffee, close the top (with the nozzle); put the coffee maker on the fire and wait for the boiling to begin, until the steam comes out of the breather hole; at this point take the coffeemaker out of the fire and turn slowly waiting for the water, passing through the coffee, to descend to the lower part of the pot.

The Neapolitan coffee machine is a full-bodied but softer coffee than the Moka, the coffee grinding also has to be a bit thicker than the one used for the Moka.


Turkish Coffee
Resultado de imagem para Turkish Coffee


Turkish coffee is a type of traditional coffee from Turkey and several territories, such as Greece, the Middle East, part of North Africa and the Balkans. Each of the other countries where coffee is prepared in this way assigns this method of preparation to itself, such as Greek coffee, Armenian coffee, Bosnian coffee and Arabic coffee.

The tools needed to prepare Turkish coffee are a small, boiling coffee machine called cezve, traditionally made of copper with a wooden handle and a spoon. During coffee milling, cardamom may also be added.

The grinding is very fine, kind talcum. The result is a drink very concentrated, being traditionally served in small coffee cups, without handle, with or without sugar. It is served in cups as small as those of espresso.

A curiosity is that the dregs that remain in the bottom of the cup, after drinking the coffee, can be used to read the sign. This is known as "kahve falı" in Turkish.



French Coffee Machine or French Press 
Resultado de imagem para French Coffee Machine
It appeared in the kitchens of France in 1852, but was only diffused in 1929 by Italian Attilio Miramare. Its main appeal is the non-use of electrical energy or paper filters. 


The process of preparing the coffee consists in putting the powder in the bottom and mix with hot water, letting the mixture sit for a few minutes. You can then push the plunger down to the coffee to be filtered. 


The grinding is thick, kind sea salt. The result is a drink full-bodied and taste of chocolate, vanilla, caramel, hazelnuts and walnuts. One of the most fragrant of the above cited. It has slight citrus acidity. The tip of preparation is 40 grams of coffee to 500 ml of water. As aforementioned, it is important letting the mixture of for a few minutes, in general, a minimum of four minutes.


Aeropress

Resultado de imagem para Aeropress
One day in 1970, Alan Adler decided to create a flying saucer-shaped polycarbonate frisbee that a decade later would hit two guinness records per object launched at greater distance without the aid of external power sources.

And what does this have to do with our favorite drink? In 2005, Alan Adler created another winning toy. And this time it was not to throw away, but to satisfy an uncontrollable need to make a cup of coffee with efficiency, practicality and style worthy of a NASA gadget.

Here comes Aeropress, similar to a syringe, simply position the paper filter (or metal) in the vessel, place the coffee in the crusher you find most convenient inside the cylindrical reservoir, allow a little time to infuse and press the dough with the other part directly into the cup. AeroPress can produce different coffees, such as a remarkably good straight espresso better espresso shot than many home machines that cost twenty or thirty times as much



Soft Brew
Resultado de imagem para Soft Brew
The "Soft Brew" is a novelty in the coffee world. As its name says, this method of preparation makes a gentle infusion into the coffee. According to designer George Sowden, creator of the product, this process does not "force, press or burn the grains" causing "the natural taste of coffee" to be extracted.
This "delicate extraction" is done through a metal filter, which is embedded inside the porcelain piece. There, filtration is done through hundreds of small holes. There is no mystery. Simply put the powder inside the metal system, add hot water and wait for the result (which reminds us of the tea process).


Espresso machine

Resultado de imagem para various espresso machines in same photo

The first espresso machine in the world emerged in 1822, as a prototype, but only in 1855 is that it was presented in Paris as a more developed for extraction of coffee. In 1901, the Italian Luigi Bezzera patented a rudimentary equipment with steam pipes, but did not succeed in the market.


Disappointed, he sold the patent for its creation in 1905 to Desidero pavoni, which has implemented new ideas and created a new model of espresso machine called Ideale. Other people began to develop new formats and the culture of the express spread throughout Italy. 


The grinding is medium/fine. The result is a drink full-bodied with taste of chocolate, vanilla and caramel, and light citrus acidity. The tip of preparation is 9 grams of coffee per cup small.



References

Gloess, Alexia N., et al. "Comparison of nine common coffee extraction methods: instrumental and sensory analysis." European Food Research and Technology 236.4 (2013): 607-627.

Mestdagh, Frédéric, et al. "The kinetics of coffee aroma extraction." Food Research International 63 (2014): 271-274.

www.aeropreess.com

www.wikihow.com

www.coffeereview.com


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